This section provides an overview of the TI 15.4-Stack out-of-box example applications and instructions on how to run them.
The TI 15.4-Stack based star network consists of two types of logical devices: the PAN-Coordinator, and network devices (sleepy or nonsleepy). This separation of the device types derives from the IEEE 802.15.4 specification. The TI 15.4-Stack can be configured in either of the two roles by the application. The PAN-Coordinator is the device that starts the network, is the central node in the star network, and allows other devices to join the network. The network devices join the network and always communicate with the PAN-Coordinator.
The collector example application demonstrates how to implement a PAN-Coordinator device, while the sensor example application demonstrates how to implement the network devices.
The example applications provided in the TI 15.4-Stack are developed for the CC13x2 or CC26x2 platform. In addition, the Linux example applications for the external host (AM335x) + MAC coprocessor configuration is included in the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK. All sample applications described in this section are intended to run on the CC13x2 or CC26x2 LaunchPad platform. The Linux example application is described in the TI 15.4-Stack Linux User’s Guide included in the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK.
The following hardware is required to run the TI 15.4-Stack OOB example applications:
- Two CC13x2 or CC26x2 LaunchPad development kits
- Optional – Two Sharp Memory LCD and microSD BoosterPack
The OOB example applications are configured to operate in the non-beacon configuration with security enabled. See Configuration Parameters to understand the various parameters that application developers can configure to use the various configuration settings of the example applications.
Collector Example Application¶
This example project implements a collector device: the PAN-Coordinator for the network. This device creates the TI 15.4-Stack network, allows sensor devices to join the network, collects sensor information sent by devices running the sensor example application, and tracks if the devices are on the network or not by periodically sending tracking request messages.
Running the Application¶
For information on how to run the Collector example application please see the
README.html included with the application source code.
Sensor Example Application¶
This sample project implements a sensor, the end device which reads sensor information and sends it to the coordinator at a configured interval.
Running the Application¶
For information on how to run the Sensor example application please see the
README.html included with the application source code.
The Sensor application has an oad variation of the project. These projects are for use when performing an Over the Air Download (OAD). Refer to Over-the-Air Download (OAD) for more information on OAD.
Running Over-the-Air-Download Example Applications¶
For information on how to run the Sensor OAD example application please see the
README.html included with the application source code.
The Over-the-Air-Download example demonstrates how TI 15.4 images can be downloaded to the device using Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) on dual band devices such as TI CC135x. The device must first be flashed with OAD capable BLE image and then by using BLE upload a 15.4 image.
The following steps must be performed to get OAD working:
You need two CC135x Launch-Pads (LPs): one will be the distributer and the other will be the target.
- Get BLE device monitor working http://processors.wiki.ti.com/index.php/BLE_Device_Monitor_User_Guide . Note that you will need to flash the LP going to be used as downloader with host_test images. TI Smart RF Flash Programmer 2 can be used to flash hex files on to the LP. These are available in the hexfiles ble_oad folder. Ensure to flash the host_test_cc1350lp_stack hex file first. Then uncheck erase in the smart RF Flasher tool. Then flash host_test_cc1350lp_app hex file. The LP attached to device monitor will be the downloader.
- Then flash simple_peripheral_cc1350lp_merged.hex file on to the device using Smart RF Flasher. This includes the OAD capable BLE stack, BLE app and Boot Image Manager (BIM) merged into a single hex file. The hex file is available in the hexfiles ble_oad folder. If instead of using the pre-built hex, it can also be built from the BLE project. Steps for this can be found in the BLE OAD User guide found in the BLE documentation folder.
- Upon reset of the device, the BLE advertisement “Simple BLE Peripheral” should now be viewable in the device monitor. If not try clicking on scan button in device monitor application or press the reset button on the device LP. Establish BLE connection with the device from the monitor by double clicking on the device in the monitor. You should see OAD as one of the services supported by the BLE device now.
- Next go to file and choose OAD in the device monitor application. Then set image type to 2 i.e. stack and load simple_peripheral_cc1350lp_no_bim.hex. If instead of using the pre-built hex file, it is required to be created from the BLE project, then please follow the instructions in the BLE OAD User Guide available in the BLE documentation folder. This image has the OAD capable BLE stack + app without BIM. Then the number of blocks per transfer can be chosen. Setting it to the lowest is the slowest but the most reliable. Then start and complete the OAD.
- Wait for device to reset and for BLE advertisement “Simple BLE Peripheral” to show up on the device monitor. If it does not show up, try pressing the reset button on the LP or click scan on the device monitor application. Once the advertisement appears on the device monitor, the device is capable of performing OAD of any image.
- Now by following steps similar to 3 and 4, download prebuilt 15.4 image sensor_oad_cc13x0lp.hex or collector_oad_cc13x0lp.hex from the hexfiles ble_oad folder depending on the role of the 15.4 device. However, note that the image type must be set to 1 i.e. application. If the images are required to be built from project, please use the sensor_oad or the collector_oad projects to generate the hex file. Opening and building the project is similar to how it is done for the regular sensor and collector projects. The default configuration for the oad projects generates an oad compatible 15.4 image.
- Wait for OAD to complete and the device to reset. The BLE advertisement from the device will no longer be observed in the monitor. The 15.4 stack image should now be running on the device.
- To switch back to OAD capable BLE image, press both left and right buttons at the same time.
FH Conformance Certification Application Example¶
The FH conformance certification example application is provided to enable users to perform an FCC or ETSI compliance tests related to channel occupancy. FCC regulations states that a channel hopping device can transmit at a high power up to 30 dbm if using more than 50 channels for hopping and ensuring that the average channel occupancy time over a 20 second period is less than 400 ms per channel [FCC]. To verify this behavior, test labs perform a channel occupancy test [FCCTest]. The actual rate at which a node shall occupy a channel depends on the application traffic. To account for a generic application profile, a back-to-back data transmission mode can be used for the compliance test.
To enable back-to-back transmissions from a device to the collector, the following configurations must be set:
- CERTIFICATION_TEST_MODE = true
- CONFIG_FH_ENABLE = true
The rest of the configurations can be set to default. In this mode, the device joins the collector and transmits back to back frames to the collector. The collector does not generate any frames but simply acknowledges the transmissions from the sensor. The frames can be capture using a spectrum analyzer to perform the channel occupancy test. The mode can also be used for ETSI testing. Note that the example application is only provided for a general guidance and for ease in performing regulation tests. Any other alternate application profiles to better reflect the application needs can also be used for compliance tests.
[FCC] FCC Part 247 - 47 CFR 15.247 - Operation within the bands 902 to 928 MHz, 2400 to 2483.5 MHz, and 5725 to 5850 MHz
[FCCTest] C63.10-2013 - American National Standard of Procedures for Compliance Testing
Table 2. lists the various configuration parameters available for the collector and sensor applications. Features.h allows the user to compile only the features needed for the mode of operation needed, which facilitates memory savings. Out of the box FEATURE_ALL_MODES is defined which enables all modes of operation and FEATURE_MAC_SECURITY is define which enable security.
The user can only define one of the features among the following options.
- FEATURE_FREQ_HOP_MODE – frequency hopping mode of operation
- FEATURE_BEACON_MODE – beacon mode of operation
- FEATURE_NON_BEACON_MODE – nonbeacon mode of operation
- FEATURE_MAC_SECURITY – enable security
- FEATURE_BLE - enable uBLE stack operations
|Common Configuration Parameters|
|CONFIG_SECURE||Turn security ON or OFF This value should match for both collector and sensor.|
|CONFIG_PAN_ID||Used to restrict the network to a certain PAN ID. If left as 0xFFFF, the collector starts with PAN ID 0x0001. If this parameter is set to a certain value for the collector, the value should be set to either the same value or 0xFFFF for the sensor application, so that the sensor joins the intended parent.|
|CONFIG_FH_ENABLE||Used to turn frequency-hopping operation ON or OFF|
|CONFIG_POLLING_INTERVAL||In the Sensor side this parameter defines the default interval in ms at which the sensor will poll the collector for any pending data. In the Collector side this parameter defines the polling interval in ms that will be configured in the sensor when the sensor joins the network. This value is set in the sensor from the collector by sending a configuration request to the joining sensor.|
|CONFIG_REPORTING_INTERVAL||In Sensor side this parameter defines the default sensor reporting interval in ms. In the Collector side this parameter defines the reporting interval in ms that will be configured in the sensor when the sensor joins the network. This value is set in the sensor from the collector by sending a configuration request to the joining sensor|
|CONFIG_MIN_BE||The minimum value of the backoff exponent in the CSMA-CA algorithm. If this value is set to 0, collision avoidance is disabled during the first iteration of the algorithm. Also, for the slotted version of the CSMA-CA algorithm with the battery life extension enabled, the minimum value of the backoff exponent will be at least 2. This value cannot be larger than 8|
|CONFIG_MAX_BE||The maximum value of the backoff exponent in the CSMA-CA algorithm. The range of this parameter is between 3 and 8 as defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 Specification.|
|CONFIG_MAC_MAX_CSMA_BACKOFFS||The maximum value of backoffs the CSMA-CA algorithm will attempt. The range of this parameter should be between 0 and 5 as defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 Specification.|
|CONFIG_MAX_RETRIES||Maximum number of times that a device will resend a packet if it is not acknowledged. The range of this parameter is between 0 and 7. Note that if after the device resends the packet CONFIG_MAX_RETRIES times, the packet will be dropped and the application will be informed via the dataCnfCB callback.|
|CONFIG_MAX_BEACONS_RECD||Maximum number of received beacons to filter after the scan request is sent out|
|CONFIG_LINKQUALITY||The device responds to enhanced-beacon requests if mpduLinkQuality is equal to or higher than this value.|
|CONFIG_PERCENTFILTER||The device randomly determines if it is to respond to enhanced- beacon requests based on meeting this probability (0 to 100%).|
|CONFIG_SCAN_DURATION||Scan duration for scan request|
|CONFIG_MAX_DEVICES||Maximum number of children for coordinator|
|CONFIG_MAC_BEACON_ORDER||Beacon order according to mode of operation: For nonbeacon and frequency-hopping modes, set this value to 15 for both collector and sensor. For beacon mode, this value can be from 1 to 14, and must match for both collector and sensor.|
|CONFIG_MAC_SUPERFRAME_ORDER||Superframe order, according to mode of operation: For nonbeacon and frequency-hopping modes, set this value to 15 for both collector and sensor. For beacon mode, this value can be from 1 to 14, and must match for both collector and sensor.|
|CONFIG_CHANNEL_PAGE||The channel page on which to perform the scan|
|CONFIG_PHY_ID||PHY ID corresponding to the PHY descriptor to use based on region of operation|
|KEY_TABLE_DEFAULT_KEY||Default security key|
|CONFIG_CHANNEL_MASK||Channel mask used when CONFIG_FH_ENABLE is false. For the collector application: Each bit indicates if the corresponding channel is to be scanned. The first byte represents channels 0 to 7, and the last byte represents channels 128 to 135. For the sensor application: For nonfrequency-hopping configuration: Channel mask – each bit indicates if the corresponding channel is to be scanned. The first byte represents channels 0 to 7, and the last byte represents channels 128 to 135.|
|CONFIG_FH_CHANNEL_MASK||Channel mask used when CONFIG_FH_ENABLE is true. Represents the list of channels on which the device can hop. When CONFIG_RX_ON_IDLE is true, the actual sequence will be based on DH1CF function. When it is set to false, the sequence shall be a linear hopping over available channels in ascending order and shall be used to change channel during the join phase. It is represented as a bit string with LSB representing Ch0. e.g., 0x01 0x10 represents Ch0 and Ch12 are included.|
|FH_ASYNC_CHANNEL_MASK||List of channels to target the async frames. It is represented as a bit string with LSB representing Ch0; for example, 0x01 0x10 represents Ch0 and Ch12 are included. It must cover all channels that could be used by a target device in its hopping sequence. Channels marked beyond number of channels supported by PHY Config are excluded by stack. To avoid interference on a channel, remove it from async mask and add it to the exclude channels (CONFIG_CHANNEL_MASK).|
|CONFIG_DWELL_TIME||Duration of the unicast and broadcast slot of the node (in ms)|
|CONFIG_FH_NETNAME||Default value for FH PIB attribute netname|
|CONFIG_TRANSMIT_POWER||Value for transmit power in dBm. Default value is 14, allowed values are any value between 0 dBm to 14 dBm in 1 dB increments, and - 10 dBm. When the nodes in the network are close to each other, lowering this value helps reduce saturation.|
|CERTIFICATION_TEST_MODE||If set to true, the device joins the collector and transmits back-to-back frames to it. The collector does not generate any frames, but simply acknowledges the transmissions from the sensor. The frames can be captured using a spectrum analyzer to perform the channel occupancy test. The mode can also be used for ETSI testing. The example application is only provided for a general guidance and for ease in performing regulation tests. NOTE: The FH conformance certification example application is provided to allow users to perform a FCC or ETSI compliance tests related to channel occupancy. FCC regulations state that a channel hopping device can transmit at a higher power of up to 30 dbm if it uses more than 50 channels for hopping and ensures that the average channel occupancy time over a 20 second period is less than 400 ms per channel [FCC]. To verify this behavior, test labs perform a channel occupancy test [FCC Test]. The actual rate at which a node occupies a channel depends on the application traffic. To account for a generic application profile, a back-to-back data transmission mode can be used for the compliance test. To enable back-to-back transmissions from a device to the collector, the following configurations are to be set: • CERTIFICATION_TEST_MODE = true • CONFIG_FH_ENABLE = true In this mode, the device will join the collector and transmit back-to-back frames to collector. Collector will not generate any frames but would simply acknowledge the transmissions from sensor. The frames can be capture using a spectrum analyzer to perform the channel occupancy test. The mode can also be used for ETSI testing. Note that the example application is only provided for a general guidance and for ease in performing regulation tests. Any other alternate application profiles to better reflect the application needs can also be used for compliance tests. [FCC] FCC Part 247 - 47 CFR 15.247 - Operation within the bands 902 to 928 MHz, 2400 to 2483.5 MHz, and 5725 to 5850 MHz [FCCTest] C63.10-2013 - American National Standard of Procedures for Compliance Testing|
|FH_NUM_NON_SLEEPY_NEIGHBOURS||The number of non-sleepy end devices to be supported. This value is limited to 50. This setting can be used for memory savings so that the stack allocates memory proportional to the number of end devices requested.|
|POWER_TEST_PROFILE||Power profile to be used when POWER_MEAS is enabled. Profile 1 - POLL_ACK - Polling Only Profile 2 - DATA_ACK - 20 byte application data + ACK from sensor to collector Profile 3 - POLL_DATA - Poll + received Data from collector Profile 4 - SLEEP - No Poll or Data. In Beacon mode, beacon RX would occur|
|Collector-Specific Configuration Parameters|
|CONFIG_COORD_SHORT_ADDR||Short address for coordinator|
|TRACKING_DELAY_TIME||Interval at which the Collector will send tracking request messges to the devices in the network to confirm that they are still active.|
|CONFIG_TRICKLE_MIN_CLK_DURATION||The minimum trickle timer window for PAN advertisement and PAN configuration frame transmissions. Default is 0.5 minute. TI recommends setting this to half of the PAS/PCS MIN timer.|
|CONFIG_TRICKLE_MAX_CLK_DURATION||The maximum trickle timer window for PAN advertisement and PAN configuration frame transmissions. Default is 16 minutes.|
|CONFIG_FH_PAN_SIZE||Default value for PAN size PIB|
|FH_BROADCAST_INTERVAL||FH Application Broadcast Msg generation interval in ms. Value should be set at least greater than 200 ms.|
|FH_BROADCAST_DWELL_TIME||FH Broadcast dwell time. If set to 0, it shall disable broadcast hopping and broadcast message transmissions in FH Mode.|
|COLLECTOR_TEST_RAMP_DATA_SIZE||Size of RAMP Data to be sent when POWER_MEAS is enabled.|
|CONFIG_DOUBLE_TRICKLE_TIMER||Enables doubling of PA or PC trickle time: used when the network has non-sleepy nodes and there is a requirement to use PA or PC to convey updated PAN information.|
|Sensor-Specific Configuration Parameters|
|CONFIG_MAX_DATA_FAILURES||Maximum number of data failures before considering sync loss (this parameter is available only for the sensor)|
|CONFIG_PAN_ADVERT_SOLICIT_CLK_DURATION||PAN Advertisement solicit trickle timer duration in ms (this parameter is available only for the sensor)|
|CONFIG_PAN_CONFIG_SOLICIT_CLK_DURATION||PAN configuration solicit trickle timer duration in ms (this parameter is available only for the sensor)|
|CONFIG_FH_START_POLL_DATA_RAND_WINDOW||FH poll/sensor message start time randomization window (this parameter is available only for the sensor)|
|CONFIG_FH_MAX_ASSOCIATION_ATTEMPTS||Maximum number of attempts for association in FH mode after reception of a PAN configuration frame (this parameter is available only for the sensor)|
|CONFIG_SCAN_BACKOFF_INTERVAL||Scan back-off interval in ms (this parameter is available only for the sensor)|
|CONFIG_RX_ON_IDLE||Used to indicate if a device is sleepy or nonsleepy: FALSE for sleepy, and TRUE for nonsleepy (this parameter is available only for the sensor).|
|CONFIG_ORPHAN_BACKOFF_INTERVAL||Delay between orphan notifications|
|SENSOR_TEST_RAMP_DATA_SIZE||If enabled, the periodic sensor message shall be sent as a fixed size packet of specified size. If set to 0, the periodic sensor message shall be of type sensor data specified in smsgs.h|
|CONFIG_RANGE_EXT_MODE||Range Extender Mode setting. The following modes are available. APIMAC_NO_EXTENDER - does not have PA/LNA, APIMAC_HIGH_GAIN_MODE - high gain mode. To enable CC1190, use #define CONFIG_RANGE_EXT_MODE APIMAC_HIGH_GAIN_MODE|
Coprocessor Example Application¶
The coprocessor project is used to build a MAC coprocessor device that works with a host processor in a 2-chip scenario. The coprocessor provides an interface to the TI 15.4-Stack protocol stack, full-function MAC capability over serial interface to the application running on the host. This device, programmed with the coprocessor application and the TI 15.4-Stack protocol stack, allows the addition of TI 15.4-Stack wireless functionality to systems that are not suited to single-chip solutions. A prebuilt hex file for the coprocessor is provided in the SDK. If changes are needed, such as an addition of a custom API command, the coprocessor project can be used to generate a new hex file.
Linux Example Applications¶
A brief description of the Linux example applications follows. For more detail, refer to the documentation included with the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK installer at http://www.ti.com/tool/TI-15.4-STACK-GATEWAY-LINUX-SDK.
Linux Collector and Gateway Application¶
These two example applications are provided inside the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK installer, a component of TI 15.4-Stack. The Linux collector example application interfaces with the CC13x2 or CC26x2 running the coprocessor and stack image through a UART. The Linux collector example application provides the same functionality as the embedded collector application, while also providing a socket server interface to the Linux gateway application. The Linux gateway application implemented within the Node.js framework connects as a client to the socket server created by the Linux collector example application, and establishes a local web server to which the user can connect through a web browser (in the local network), and monitor and control the network devices. The collector and gateway applications can be great starting points for creating IOT applications. For more details, refer to the TI 15.4-Stack Linux User’s Guide included with the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK installer.
Linux Serial Bootloader Application¶
This example application is included inside the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK installer. This application provides the capability to upgrade the firmware of the CC13x2 or CC26x2 MCU through the CC13x2 or CC26x2 ROM bootloader. For more details, refer to the TI 15.4-Stack Linux User’s Guide included with the TI 15.4-Stack Linux SDK installer.